Tom Portugal

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Tom Portugal

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Tom \u0026 Jerry em Português - Portugal - Tom, Jerry e Spike - WB Kids It was signed Beste Spielothek in Industriehof finden 7 Juneand divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the two countries along a Waldborn Duisburg leagues west of the Cape Verde islands off the west coast of Africa. With this battle, the House of Aviz became the ruling house of Portugal. Czechoslovakia — Saar assoc. He won re-election in January Beste Spielothek in Popperode finden Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by having troops march around the models. Disaster fell upon Portugal in Bitcoin Kaufen Oder Nicht morning of 1 Novemberwhen Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an Geschenk 20. Hochzeitstag moment magnitude of 8.

With the occupation by Napoleon, Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline that lasted until the 20th century.

This decline was hastened by the independence of Brazil , the country's largest colonial possession. In the autumn of , Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal.

From to , British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal in the Peninsular War , during which the royal family and the Portuguese nobility , including Maria I, relocated to the Portuguese territory of Brazil , at that time a colony of the Portuguese Empire , in South America.

This episode is known as the Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil. In , Brazil was declared a Kingdom and the Kingdom of Portugal was united with it, forming a pluricontinental state, the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

As a result of the change in its status and the arrival of the Portuguese royal family, Brazilian administrative, civic, economical , military, educational , and scientific apparatus were expanded and highly modernized.

However, the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until the Liberal Revolution of , which started in Porto , demanded his return to Lisbon in Thus he returned to Portugal but left his son Pedro in charge of Brazil.

When the Portuguese Government attempted the following year to return the Kingdom of Brazil to subordinate status, his son Pedro, with the overwhelming support of the Brazilian elites, declared Brazil's independence from Portugal.

Cisplatina today's sovereign state of Uruguay , in the south, was one of the last additions to the territory of Brazil under Portuguese rule.

Brazilian independence was recognized in , whereby Emperor Pedro I granted to his father the titular honour of Emperor of Brazil.

John VI's death in caused serious questions in his succession. Though Pedro was his heir, and reigned briefly as Pedro IV, his status as a Brazilian monarch was seen as an impediment to holding the Portuguese throne by both nations.

However, Pedro's brother, Infante Miguel , claimed the throne in protest. In order to defend his daughter's rights to the throne, Pedro launched the Liberal Wars to reinstall his daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy in Portugal.

The war ended in , with Miguel's defeat, the promulgation of a constitution, and the reinstatement of Queen Maria II.

Under his reign, roads, telegraphs, and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced. His popularity increased when, during the cholera outbreak of —, he visited hospitals handing out gifts and comforting the sick.

At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.

During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there.

With the Conference of Berlin of , Portuguese territories in Africa had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for Africa.

Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway tracks as the Benguela railway in Angola, and the Beira railway in Mozambique, started to be built to link coastal areas and selected inland regions.

Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include the British Ultimatum. This forced the Portuguese military to retreat from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia , which had been claimed by Portugal and included in its " Pink Map ", which clashed with British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo Railway.

His second and youngest son, Manuel II of Portugal , became the new king, but was eventually overthrown by the 5 October Portuguese republican revolution , which abolished the monarchy and installed a republican government in Portugal, causing him and his royal family to flee into exile in London , England.

The new republic had many problems. Portugal had 45 different governments in just 15 years. But the war hurt its weak economy.

Political instability and economic weaknesses were fertile ground for chaos and unrest during the Portuguese First Republic. Portugal remained neutral in World War II.

Gradually, new economic development projects and relocation of mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas provinces in Africa were initiated, with Angola and Mozambique , as the largest and richest overseas territories, being the main targets of those initiatives.

These actions were used to affirm Portugal's status as a transcontinental nation and not as a colonial empire. After India attained independence in , pro-Indian residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli , with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organizations, separated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in Another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in December when Portugal refused to relinquish the territories of Goa , Daman and Diu in India.

As a result, the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese India against the Indian Armed Forces.

The operations resulted in the defeat and surrender of the limited Portuguese defensive garrison, which was forced to surrender to a much larger military force.

The outcome was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent. The Portuguese regime refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly until the military coup of Also in the early s, independence movements in the Portuguese overseas provinces of Angola , Mozambique and Guinea in Africa, resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War — Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community.

This period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces. By the summer of , the tension between these was so high, that the country was on the verge of civil war.

The main episode of this confrontation was the successful assault on the barracks of the left-wing dominated Military Police Regiment by the moderate forces of the Commando Regiment, resulting in three soldiers killed in action.

The Group of Nine emerged victorious, thus preventing the establishment of a communist state in Portugal and ending the period of political instability in the country.

The retreat from the overseas territories and the acceptance of its independence terms by Portuguese head representatives for overseas negotiations, which would create independent states in , prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.

Over one million Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese provinces as white settlers were usually not considered part of the new identities of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.

By , all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years. In this capacity Soares tried to resume the economic growth and development record that had been achieved before the Carnation Revolution, during the last decade of the previous regime.

He initiated the process of accession to the European Economic Community EEC by starting accession negotiations as early as Portugal bounced between socialism and adherence to the neoliberal model.

Land reform and nationalizations were enforced; the Portuguese Constitution approved in was rewritten in order to accommodate socialist and communist principles.

Until the constitutional revisions of and , the constitution was a document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers, and the desirability of a socialist economy.

Portugal's economic situation after its transition to democracy, obliged the government to pursue International Monetary Fund IMF -monitored stabilization programs in —78 and — In , the independence of East Timor Asia was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in because of the Carnation Revolution, but interrupted by an Indonesian armed invasion and occupation.

On 26 March , Portugal started to implement Schengen Area rules, eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states.

In , Jorge Sampaio became president. He won re-election in January Expo '98 took place in Portugal and in it was one of the founding countries of the euro and the eurozone.

It was initially rejected by voters in The territory of Portugal includes an area on the Iberian Peninsula referred to as the continent by most Portuguese and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores.

Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus , that flows from Spain and disgorges in the Tagus Estuary , in Lisbon, before escaping into the Atlantic.

The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, including the Algarve and the Alentejo regions, is characterized by rolling plains.

Portugal's highest peak is the similarly named Mount Pico on the island of Pico in the Azores. The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: the Azores straddling the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on a tectonic triple junction, and Madeira along a range formed by in-plate hotspot geology.

Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events. The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in —58 Capelinhos and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity.

This is the 3rd largest exclusive economic zone of the European Union and the 20th largest in the world. There are however, variations from the highlands to the lowlands: Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martinez presents several different bioclimatic zones for Portugal.

The record high of In these places snow can fall any time from October to May. In the South of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations.

Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult owing to rough topography.

Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer. Consequently, the islands of the Azores have been identified as having a Mediterranean Climate both Csa and Csb types , while some islands such as Flores or Corvo are classified as Oceanic Cfb and Humid subtropical Cfa , respectively, according to Köppen-Geiger classification.

Porto Santo island in Madeira has a semi-arid steppe climate BSh. Despite the fact that humans have occupied the territory of Portugal for thousands of years, something still remains of the original vegetation.

Due to the human population decrease and rural exodus, Pyrenean oak and other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas.

Boar , Iberian red deer, roe deer, and the Iberian wild goat, are reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades.

Boars were found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas, like in Setubal. These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species , the English oak Quercus robur , the Pyrenean oak Quercus pyrenaica the chestnut Castanea sativa , the cork-oak Quercus suber , the holm oak Quercus ilex or the Portuguese oak Quercus faginea.

Due to their economic value, some species of the genus Eucalyptus were introduced and are now common, despite their environmental impact.

Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest, which nowadays, in Europe, is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula: in the Azores, and in particular on the island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemic Laurisilva the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve.

There are several species of diverse mammalian fauna, including the fox , badger , iberian lynx , iberian wolf , wild goat Capra pyrenaica , wild cat Felis silvestris , hare , weasel , polecat , chameleon , mongoose , civet , the occasional brown bear [98] and many others.

Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St. Vincent or the Monchique mountains, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring return migration.

Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between Northern Europe and Africa.

Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal either for nesting or during the course of migration , and annually there are new registries of nesting species.

The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species.

There are more than freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish in the Tagus International Natural Park to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes along the western portion of country, for example.

Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought. Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world.

Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as the sardine Sardina pilchardus , tuna and Atlantic mackerel.

Bioluminescent species are also well represented including species in different colour spectrum and forms , like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe on some beaches.

There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle Lucanus cervus and the cicada.

The Macaronesian islands Azores and Madeira have many endemic species like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal.

In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than species of land gastropods. Portugal has been a semi-presidential representative democratic republic since the ratification of the Constitution of , with Lisbon , the nation's largest city, as its capital [ citation needed ].

The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as "organs of Sovereignty": the President of the Republic , the Government , the Assembly of the Republic and the Courts.

The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: the current President is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.

The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of deputies elected for a four-year term. The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches.

A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws. The Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic , elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage.

He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections ; dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic to call early elections ; vetoing legislation which may be overridden by the Assembly ; and declaring a state of war or siege.

The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State , which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.

The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration.

It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly.

The Council of Ministers — under the presidency of the Prime Minister or the President of Portugal at the latter's request and the Ministers may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers — acts as the cabinet.

Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate.

The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office.

The Assembly of the Republic , in Lisbon, is the national parliament of Portugal. It is the main legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers.

The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation , deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.

The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. The main laws include the Constitution , as amended , the Portuguese Civil Code , as amended and the Penal Code of Portugal , as amended.

Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code , as amended and the Civil Procedure Code , as amended. The Public Ministry , headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors.

Portuguese laws were applied in the former colonies and territories and continue to be major influences for those countries.

Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment in and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty.

Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years. Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in , the first country in the world to do so.

Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis , cocaine , heroin , and LSD.

While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines.

People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences.

Despite criticism from other European nations, who stated Portugal's drug consumption would tremendously increase, overall drug use has declined along with the number of HIV infection cases, which had dropped 50 per cent by Drug use among to year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.

LGBTI rights have increased substantially in the past years. On 27 August , Portugal added the anti-discrimination employment law on the basis of sexual orientation.

The law came into force on 5 June Portugal has 49 correctional facilities in total run by the Ministry of Justice. They include 17 central prisons, 4 special prisons, 27 regional prisons, and 1 'Cadeia de Apoio' Support Detention Centre.

Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services.

For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics NUTS , inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration and being phased-out by the national government.

In , Portugal co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.

It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal and the United Kingdom share the world's oldest active military accord through their Anglo-Portuguese Alliance Treaty of Windsor , which was signed in The armed forces have three branches: Navy , Army and Air Force.

They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.

As of [update] , the three branches numbered 39, active personnel including 7, women. Military conscription was abolished in The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years.

The Army 21, personnel comprises three brigades and other small units. The Navy 10, personnel, of which 1, are marines , the world's oldest surviving naval force, has five frigates, seven corvettes, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels.

In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard , a security force subject to military law and organization gendarmerie comprising 25, personnel.

This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.

The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a billion-euro bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in May After the bailout was announced, the Portuguese government headed by Pedro Passos Coelho managed to implement measures with the intention of improving the state's financial situation, including tax hikes, a freeze of civil service-related lower-wages and cuts of higher-wages by The Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal Telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions.

This allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works and inflated top management and head officer bonuses and wages.

Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants. Risky credit , public debt creation, and European structural and cohesion funds were mismanaged across almost four decades.

The case of BPN was particularly serious because of its size, market share, and the political implications — Portugal's then President, Cavaco Silva and some of his political allies, maintained personal and business relationships with the bank and its CEO, who was eventually charged and arrested for fraud and other crimes.

Since the Carnation Revolution of , which culminated in the end of one of Portugal's most notable phases of economic expansion that started in the s , [] a significant change has occurred in the nation's annual economic growth.

Since the s, Portugal's public consumption -based economic development model has been slowly changing to a system that is focused on exports, private investment and the development of the high-tech sector.

Consequently, business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear and cork Portugal is the world's leading cork producer , [] wood products and beverages.

In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund IMF.

In May , the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum.

At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0. The Global Competitiveness Report for —, published by the World Economic Forum , placed Portugal on the 36th position on the economic index.

The Economist Intelligence Unit 's quality of life index placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for , ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but 9 places behind its sole neighbour, Spain.

The PSI is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index. The International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years.

Because of a surplus in , the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis.

The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt. The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment.

Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: tomatoes , citrus , green vegetables , rice , wheat , barley , maize , olives , oilseeds , nuts , cherries , bilberry , table grapes , edible mushrooms , dairy products , poultry and beef.

Traditionally a sea power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.

Portuguese-processed fish products are exported through several companies, under a number of different brands and registered trademarks, such as Ramirez , the world's oldest active canned fish producer.

Portugal is a significant European minerals producer and is ranked among Europe's leading copper producers. The nation is also a notable producer of tin , tungsten and uranium.

However, the country lacks the potential to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and aluminium , a limitation that has hindered the development of Portugal's mining and metallurgy sectors.

Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves — mainly in the north — after the revolution and the consequent economic globalization , low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals.

The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most recognized Portuguese mines that are still in operation. The largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production.

It has 5 more deposits in its possession. Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid.

Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral. The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2, metres of total drilling.

The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign. Volkswagen Group's AutoEuropa motor vehicle assembly plant in Palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in Portugal.

Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such as aerospace , biotechnology and information technology , have been developed in several locations across the country.

Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon , Porto , Braga , Coimbra and Aveiro.

The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the financial crisis of — , and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal.

While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks , it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.

Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal. It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors.

Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,, foreign tourists each year. Lisbon attracts the sixteenth-most tourists among European cities [] with seven million tourists occupying the city's hotels in Also, between 5—6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley , the island of Porto Santo , and Alentejo.

The legend of the Rooster of Barcelos tells the story of a dead rooster's miraculous intervention in proving the innocence of a man who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death.

The Rooster of Barcelos is bought by thousands of tourists as a national souvenir. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects.

One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon , founded in Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.

Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several [] science parks across the country.

Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.

The European Innovation Scoreboard , placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output.

By the earlys, Portugal's fast economic growth with increasing consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation.

Again in the s, after joining the European Economic Community , the country built many new motorways. Opened in , the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5.

Although a few other tracts were created around and , it was only after the beginning of the s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented.

In , Brisa , the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the region's motorways. On many highways, a toll needs to be paid see Via Verde.

Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe at Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country.

The primary flag-carrier is TAP Air Portugal , although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country.

The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete , to replace Lisbon Portela Airport , though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures.

One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores. This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores.

It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force. The base remains in use to the present day.

A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal CP.

The railway network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of CP, both public companies.

In , the CP carried ,, passengers and 9,, tonnes 9,, long tons ; 10,, short tons of goods. In Porto , a tram network , of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remains, began construction on 12 September a first for the Iberian Peninsula.

All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services. Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources.

Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels.

New programmes combine wind and water: wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest.

Portugal's distribution system is also now a two-way street. Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels.

The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.

In and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,,, although it was an increase compared with A very small number of former Jews may have continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret over many generations, namely the Jews of Belmonte , a town in the interior; where people now observe the Jewish faith openly.

Another interesting demographic feature relates to the Scandinavian expansion towards the West and strong activity in Northern Portugal where some coastline communities kept Scandinavian ancestry in Aveiro , Porto and Braga regions.

The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45, years ago.

All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic.

Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations.

With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers. These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity.

Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean especially with Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans and Moors add some particular phenotypes in Southern Portugal and particularly Southern Spain Tartessos culture making Portugal and Northwestern Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character.

Despite the good economic development in the past three decades the Portuguese were the shortest in Europe since This emerging height gap took place in the s and has increased since.

One of the driving factors was the modest real wage development, given the late industrialization and economic growth in Portugal compared to the European core.

Another determinant was the delayed human capital formation. The total fertility rate TFR as of [update] was estimated at 1. The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by a significant inequality which in placed the country in the lowest seventh of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.

Portugal's parliament in approved a budget plan for that includes tax breaks for returning emigrants in a bid to lure back those who left during the financial crisis of — The expansionary budget, backed by a left-wing majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further.

Returning emigrants will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years.

The "Return Programme" is to run for two years. Around , residents left Portugal between and after the Great Recession.

Although some , have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home — in a similar scheme to the Irish one. Furthermore, Emigrants returning in and will see their taxes halved as part of the stimulus to bring native Portuguese back and revitalize the population and promote continued economic growth [] — as Portugal struggles with a low birth rate and an ageing population.

According to projections by the national statistics office, Portugal's population will fall to 7. In , Portugal had 10,, inhabitants of whom about , were legal immigrants.

Portugal's colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the south-western corner of Europe, looking out into the Atlantic Ocean.

It was one of the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories among them Angola and Mozambique in , turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China at the end of Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons.

Portugal, long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry , [] has now become a country of net immigration, [] and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until , African Portuguese until , and Far East Asian Portuguese until overseas territories.

An estimated , Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in Since the s, along with a boom in construction , several new waves of Ukrainian , Brazilian , Lusophone Africans and other Africans have settled in the country.

Portugal's Romani population is estimated to be at about 40, In addition, a number of EU citizens , mostly from the United Kingdom, other northern European or Nordic countries, have become permanent residents in the country with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira.

According to the Census, Some 6. Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation.

Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated.

In the 13th and 14th centuries , the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest , its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its first university.

The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization , with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents.

The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic —26 changed the role and importance of organized religion.

Portugal is a secular state : church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated in the Portuguese Constitution.

Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the Concordata later amended in between Portugal and the Holy See and the Religious Freedom Act.

Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated from Galician-Portuguese ; an extinct language that was spoken in what is now Galicia and Northern Portugal regions.

There are still many similarities between the Galician and Portuguese cultures. Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

The Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around years ago — particularly the Celts , [23] Conii , [] Lusitanians [22] and Turduli.

These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region People's Republic of China where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese , make up the Lusosphere , a term derived from the ancient Roman province of " Lusitania ", which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river.

Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal. It is part of the Astur-Leonese group of languages.

According to the International English Proficiency Index , Portugal has a high proficiency level in English , higher than in other countries like Italy, France or Spain.

The educational system is divided into preschool for those under age 6 , basic education 9 years, in three stages, compulsory , secondary education 3 years, compulsory since , and higher education subdivided in university and polytechnic education.

Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions.

The total adult literacy rate is Portuguese primary school enrolments are per cent. According to the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA , the average Portuguese year-old student, when rated in terms of reading literacy, mathematics and science knowledge, is placed significantly above the OECD 's average, at a similar level as those students from Norway, Denmark and Belgium, with points is the average.

In addition to being a destination for international students , Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students.

All higher education students, both domestic and international, totalled , in Portuguese universities have existed since The oldest Portuguese university [] was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra.

Presently, the largest university in Portugal is the University of Lisbon. The Bologna process has been adopted by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes in Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions.

However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants over 23 years old , international students , foreign students from the Lusosphere , degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions academic transfer , former students readmission , and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.

Most student costs are supported with public money. However, with the increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types of students many as part-time students or in evening classes like employees, businessmen, parents, and pensioners, many departments make a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in courses, with benefits for the college or university's gross tuition revenue and without loss of educational quality teacher per student, computer per student, classroom size per student, etc.

Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.

According to the Human Development Report , the average life expectancy in Portugal had reached 82 years in , [] in it is estimated at Portugal ranks 12th in the best public health systems in the world, ahead of other countries like the United Kingdom , Germany or Sweden.

The SNS provides universal coverage. Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery.

Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.

The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer including the state and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems.

In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding. Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases.

Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years. Although lung cancer slowly increasing among women and breast cancer decreasing rapidly are scarcer, cervical cancer and prostate cancer are more frequent.

Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the s. Portugal's infant mortality rate is around 2 deaths per newborns, with 2.

People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health, and their use of health care services.

Yet their perceptions of their health, can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations.

Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at household level, complement other data on health status and the use of services.

Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal Kasmel et al. This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.

Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery.

In the s and s decade , Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in in Lisbon.

Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline , also known as Portuguese late Gothic a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, followed by Pombaline style of the 18th century.

A 20th-century interpretation of traditional architecture, Soft Portuguese style , appears extensively in major cities, especially Lisbon.

Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song.

Until , the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula.

Portuguese cuisine is very diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod bacalhau in Portuguese , for which there are hundreds of recipes.

Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada , a tomato-based stew that can be made from several types of fish with a mix of onion, garlic, peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, parsley or coriander.

A very popular northern dish is dobrada , a tripe with white beans and carrots stew, often served with steamed white rice.

Peri-peri chicken is a spicy charcoal chicken dish served with rice and vegetables, a favourite throughout Portugal, but most common in the Algarve region.

The Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in the many medieval Catholic monasteries spread widely across the country.

Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small tasquinhas.

Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their god Bacchus.

Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world.

Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The traditional one is the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in local customs having as instruments bagpipes gaita , drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and ukuleles cavaquinho.

Within Portuguese folk music is the renowned genre of Fado , a melancholic urban music originated in Lisbon in the 19th century, probably inside bohemian environments, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade , or longing.

Coimbra fado , a unique type of " troubadour serenading" fado, is also noteworthy. Similarly, contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel d'Oliveira have achieved some international success writing.

In addition to Folk , Fado and Classical music, other genres are present at Portugal like pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese, Caribbean, Lusophone African and Brazilian artists and bands.

Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto.

Furthermore, one of the largest international Goa trance festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, the Boom Festival, that is also the only festival in Portugal to win international awards: European Festival Award — Green'n'Clean Festival of the Year and the Greener Festival Award Outstanding and There is also the student festivals of Queima das Fitas are major events in a number of cities across Portugal.

Furthermore, Portugal won the Eurovision Song Contest in Kiev with the song " Amar pelos dois " presented by Salvador Sobral , and subsequently hosted the contest at the Altice Arena in Lisbon.

Portugal has a rich history in painting. During the renaissance Portuguese painting was highly influenced by north European painting.

The 20th century saw the arrival of Modernism , and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso , who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly the Delaunays Robert and Sonia.

He was deeply influenced by both Cubist and Futurist trends. Football is the most popular sport in Portugal. There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level.

They have won eight titles in the European UEFA club competitions, were present in 21 finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season.

Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include roller hockey , basketball , futsal , handball , and volleyball.

The Portuguese national rugby union team qualified for the Rugby World Cup and the Portuguese national rugby sevens team has played in the World Rugby Sevens Series.

In athletics , the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions. At international level, Portuguese cyclists have already achieved good results.

Rui Costa has won the world title in the men's road race. The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing , judo , kitesurf , rowing , sailing, surfing , shooting, taekwondo , triathlon and windsurf , owning several European and world titles.

The paralympic athletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming , boccia , athletics , mixed martial arts and wrestling.

In motorsport, Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of Portugal , and the Estoril , Algarve Circuits and the revived Porto Street Circuit which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied motorsports.

In water sports, Portugal has three major sports: swimming , water polo and surfing. Most recently, Portugal had success in canoeing with several world and European champions, such as olympic medalists.

Northern Portugal has its own original martial art , Jogo do Pau , in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents.

Other popular sport-related recreational outdoor activities with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide include airsoft , fishing, golf , hiking, hunting and orienteering.

Portugal is one of the world's best golf destinations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 August This article is about the country.

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Main articles: Escoural Cave and History of Portugal. Examples of Celtic Castro culture in Northern Portugal 9th — 1st c. Main articles: Lusitania , Gallaecia , and Hispania.

Main article: County of Portugal. The Battle of Ourique , The Siege of Lisbon , Main article: History of Portugal — The Lisbon earthquake devastated Portugal with an estimated magnitude between 8.

Sequeira , Main articles: Carnation Revolution and Portuguese transition to democracy. Main article: Geography of Portugal.

Main article: Climate of Portugal. Main articles: Government of Portugal and Politics of Portugal. Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa , 20th President of Portugal.

Main article: Law enforcement in Portugal. Main article: Administrative divisions of Portugal. Madeira Autonomous Region. Main article: Foreign relations of Portugal.

Main article: Portuguese Armed Forces. Further information: — Portuguese financial crisis. Main articles: Economy of Portugal and Economic history of Portugal.

Main article: Tourism in Portugal. The Champalimaud Foundation , in Lisbon , is one of the world's leading medical research centres.

Main article: Science and technology in Portugal. Main article: Transport in Portugal. The Lisbon Metro is Portugal's oldest and largest subway system.

Main article: Energy in Portugal. Solar farms in Madeira top and Alqueva Hydroelectric Dam bottom. Main article: Demographics of Portugal. Main article: Metropolitan areas of Portugal.

Main article: Immigration to Portugal. Main article: Religion in Portugal. Religions in Portugal Census [] Roman Catholicism.

Main articles: Languages of Portugal and Portuguese language. Main article: Education in Portugal. Founded in , the University of Coimbra is Portugal's oldest and most prestigious, as well as one of the world's oldest universities.

The University of Porto is Portugal's second largest and its leading research university. Main article: Health in Portugal.

Main article: Culture of Portugal. Main article: Cinema of Portugal. Main article: Portuguese literature. Fernando Pessoa , prolific writer in 20th-century Portuguese literature.

Main articles: Portuguese cuisine and Portuguese wine. Main article: Music of Portugal. Main article: Portuguese art. Main article: Sport in Portugal.

Portugal portal. This list of names that Portugal gives has some flexibility. For instance, if one parent is a duel national or a citizen of a foreign country, the law does not apply.

But if you decide to seek citizenship, prepare to change your name to an approved one. But in saying all that, there have been reports of people called Tom being given the odd glare for harboring an unapproved name.

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The Carthaginians, Rome's adversary in the Punic Wars , were expelled from their coastal colonies. During the last days of Julius Caesar , almost the entire peninsula was annexed to the Roman Republic.

The Roman conquest of what is now part of Portugal took almost two hundred years and took many lives of young soldiers and the lives of those who were sentenced to a certain death in the slave mines when not sold as slaves to other parts of the empire.

It suffered a severe setback in BC, when a rebellion began in the north. The Lusitanians and other native tribes, under the leadership of Viriathus , [45] [46] wrested control of all of western Iberia.

Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion, but to no avail — the Lusitanians kept conquering territory.

The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed Viriathus's allies to kill him. Rome installed a colonial regime.

The complete Romanization of Lusitania only took place in the Visigothic era. In 27 BC, Lusitania gained the status of Roman province.

Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known as Gallaecia , with capital in Bracara Augusta, today's Braga.

The former, beyond being one of the largest Roman settlements in Portugal, is also classified as a National Monument.

The site also has a museum that displays objects found by archaeologists during their excavations. Several works of engineering, such as baths, temples, bridges, roads, circuses, theatres and laymen's homes are preserved throughout the country.

Coins, some coined in Lusitanian land, as well as numerous pieces of ceramics, were also found. Contemporary historians include Paulus Orosius c.

In the early 5th century, Germanic tribes , namely the Suebi [50] and the Vandals Silingi and Hasdingi together with their allies, the Sarmatians and Alans invaded the Iberian Peninsula where they would form their kingdom.

About and during the 6th century it became a formally declared Kingdom of the Suebi , [51] [50] where king Hermeric made a peace treaty with the Gallaecians before passing his domains to Rechila , his son.

In Rechila died, leaving the state in expansion to Rechiar. After the defeat against the Visigoths, the Suebian kingdom was divided, with Frantan and Aguiulfo ruling simultaneously.

Both reigned from to , the year in which Maldras — reunified the kingdom. He was assassinated after a failed Roman-Visigothic conspiracy. Although the conspiracy did not achieve its true purposes, the Suebian Kingdom was again divided between two kings: Frumar Frumario — and Remismund Remismundo, son of Maldras — who would re-reunify his father's kingdom in He would be forced to adopt Arianism in due to the Visigoth influence.

By the year , the Visigothic Kingdom had been installed in Iberia, it was based in Toledo and advancing westwards.

They became a threat to the Suebian rule. After the death of Remismund in a dark period set in, where virtually all written texts and accounts disappear.

This period lasted until The only thing known about this period is that Theodemund Teodemundo most probably ruled the Suebians.

The dark period ended with the reign of Karriarico — who reinstalled Catholic Christianity in He was succeed by Theodemar — during whose reign the 1st Council of Braga was held.

After the death of Teodomiro, Miro — was his successor. During his reign, the 2nd Council of Braga was held.

The Visigothic civil war began in Miro intervened. Later in he also organized an unsuccessful expedition to reconquer Seville.

During the return from this failed operation Miro died. In the Suebian Kingdom many internal struggles continued to take place.

Eborico Eurico, — was dethroned by Andeca Audeca — , who failed to prevent the Visigothic invasion led by Leovigildo.

The Visigothic invasion, completed in , turned the once rich and fertile kingdom of the Suebi into the sixth province of the Gothic kingdom.

For the next years and by the year , the entire Iberian Peninsula was ruled by the Visigoths. Doges at this time were related to the monarchy acted as princes in all matters.

Both 'governors' Wamba and Wittiza Vitiza acted as doge they would later become kings in Toledo. These two became known as the 'vitizians', who headquartered in the northwest and called on the Arab invaders from the South to be their allies in the struggle for power in King Roderic Rodrigo was killed while opposing this invasion, thus becoming the last Visigothic king of Iberia.

From the various Germanic groups who settled in Western Iberia, the Suebi left the strongest lasting cultural legacy in what is today Portugal, Galicia and western fringes of Asturias.

Bracara Augusta, the modern city of Braga and former capital of Gallaecia , became the capital of the Suebi.

Today's continental Portugal, along with most of modern Spain, was part of al-Andalus between and , following the Umayyad Caliphate conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.

This rule lasted from some decades in the North to five centuries in the South. After defeating the Visigoths in only a few months, the Umayyad Caliphate started expanding rapidly in the peninsula.

Beginning in , the land that is now Portugal became part of the vast Umayyad Caliphate's empire of Damascus , which stretched from the Indus river in the Indian sub-continent up to the South of France, until its collapse in The governors of the taifas each proclaimed themselves Emir of their provinces and established diplomatic relations with the Christian kingdoms of the north.

Most of present-day Portugal fell into the hands of the Taifa of Badajoz of the Aftasid Dynasty , and after a short spell of an ephemeral Taifa of Lisbon in , fell under the dominion of the Taifa of Seville of the Abbadids poets.

The Taifa period ended with the conquest of the Almoravids who came from Morocco in winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Sagrajas , followed a century later in , after the second period of Taifa, by the Almohads , also from Marrakesh.

Gharb Al-Andalus at its largest was constituted of ten kuras, [68] each with a distinct capital and governor.

The Muslim population of the region consisted mainly of native Iberian converts to Islam the so-called Muwallad or Muladi and berbers.

The Arabs were principally noblemen from Syria and Oman ; and though few in numbers, they constituted the elite of the population. An Asturian Visigothic noble named Pelagius of Asturias in was elected leader [69] by many of the ousted Visigoth nobles.

Pelagius called for the remnant of the Christian Visigothic armies to rebel against the Moors and regroup in the unconquered northern Asturian highlands, better known today as the Cantabrian Mountains , in what is today the small mountain region in North-western Spain , adjacent to the Bay of Biscay.

Pelagius' plan was to use the Cantabrian mountains as a place of refuge and protection from the invading Moors. He then aimed to regroup the Iberian Peninsula's Christian armies and use the Cantabrian mountains as a springboard from which to regain their lands.

Finding that the region had previously had two major cities — Portus Cale in the coast and Braga in the interior, with many towns that were now deserted — he decided to repopulate and rebuild them with Portuguese and Galician refugees and other Christians.

The last great invasion, through the Minho river , ended with the defeat of Olaf II Haraldsson in against the Galician nobility who also stopped further advances into the County of Portugal.

Later the Kingdom of Asturias was divided into a number of Christian Kingdoms in Northern Iberia due to dynastic divisions of inheritance among the king's offspring.

Henry based his newly formed county in Bracara Augusta modern Braga , capital city of the ancient Roman province, and also previous capital of several kingdoms over the first millennia.

Afonso then turned his arms against the Moors in the south. Afonso's campaigns were successful and, on 25 July , he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique , and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers.

Afonso then established the first of the Portuguese Cortes at Lamego , where he was crowned by the Archbishop of Braga, though the validity of the Cortes of Lamego has been disputed and called a myth created during the Portuguese Restoration War.

Afonso Henriques and his successors, aided by military monastic orders , pushed southward to drive out the Moors. At this time, Portugal covered about half of its present area.

In , the Reconquista ended with the capture of the Algarve and complete expulsion of the last Moorish settlements on the southern coast, giving Portugal its present-day borders, with minor exceptions.

This treaty established among other things the border demarcation between the kingdom of Portugal and the kingdom of Leon, where the disputed town of Olivenza was included.

In and Portugal, like the rest of Europe, was devastated by the Black Death. Over time, this went far beyond geo-political and military cooperation protecting both nations' interests in Africa, the Americas and Asia against French, Spanish and Dutch rivals and maintained strong trade and cultural ties between the two old European allies.

In the Oporto region, in particular, there is visible English influence to this day. With this battle, the House of Aviz became the ruling house of Portugal.

Portugal spearheaded European exploration of the world and the Age of Discovery. During this period, Portugal explored the Atlantic Ocean , discovering the Atlantic archipelagos the Azores , Madeira , and Cape Verde ; explored the African coast; colonized selected areas of Africa; discovered an eastern route to India via the Cape of Good Hope ; discovered Brazil , explored the Indian Ocean , established trading routes throughout most of southern Asia; and sent the first direct European maritime trade and diplomatic missions to China and Japan.

In , Portugal acquired the first of its overseas colonies by conquering Ceuta , the first prosperous Islamic trade centre in North Africa.

There followed the first discoveries in the Atlantic: Madeira and the Azores , which led to the first colonization movements. Throughout the 15th century, Portuguese explorers sailed the coast of Africa, establishing trading posts for several common types of tradable commodities at the time , ranging from gold to slaves , as they looked for a route to India and its spices , which were coveted in Europe.

The Treaty of Tordesillas , intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus , was made by Pope Alexander VI , the mediator between Portugal and Spain.

It was signed on 7 June , and divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the two countries along a meridian leagues west of the Cape Verde islands off the west coast of Africa.

In , Vasco da Gama accomplished what Columbus set out for and became the first European to reach India by sea, bringing economic prosperity to Portugal and its population of 1.

Philip's , Newfoundland and Labrador , long before the French and English in the 17th century, and being just one of many Portuguese colonizations of the Americas.

Portuguese sailors set out to reach Eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe, landing in such places as Taiwan, Japan, the island of Timor , and in the Moluccas.

Although for a long period it was believed the Dutch were the first Europeans to arrive in Australia, there is also some evidence that the Portuguese may have discovered Australia in Magellan never made it back to Europe as he was murdered by natives in the Philippines in The Treaty of Zaragoza , signed on 22 April between Portugal and Spain, specified the anti-meridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas.

All these factors made Portugal one of the world's major economic, military, and political powers from the 15th century until the late 16th century.

Portugal voluntarily entered a dynastic union between and Portugal did not lose its formal independence, briefly forming a union of kingdoms.

At this time Spain was a geographic territory. War led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, England , and the loss of Hormuz , a strategic trading post located between Iran and Oman.

From to the Dutch-Portuguese War primarily involved the Dutch companies invading many Portuguese colonies and commercial interests in Brazil, Africa, India and the Far East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian sea trade monopoly.

In , John IV of Portugal spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. This was the beginning of the House of Braganza , which reigned in Portugal until Pedro's reign saw the consolidation of national independence, imperial expansion, and investment in domestic production.

Disregarding traditional Portuguese institutions of governance, John V acted as an absolute monarch, nearly depleting the country's tax revenues on ambitious architectural works, most notably Mafra Palace , and on commissions and additions for his sizeable art and literary collections.

Owing to his craving for international diplomatic recognition, John also spent large sums on the embassies he sent to the courts of Europe, the most famous being those he sent to Paris in and Rome in John V died the following year and his son, Joseph I , was crowned.

As the King's confidence in Carvalho e Melo increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state. Impressed by British economic success that he had witnessed from his time as an Ambassador, he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal.

He abolished slavery in mainland Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in India, reorganized the army and the navy, restructured the University of Coimbra , and ended legal discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal by abolishing the distinction between Old and New Christians.

Carvalho e Melo's greatest reforms were economic and financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity.

He created one of the first appellation systems in the world by demarcating the region for production of Port to ensure the wine's quality; and this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe.

He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of Portuguese society from the high nobility to the poorest working class, along with a widespread review of the country's tax system.

These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart. Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of 1 November , when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.

The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires. We bury the dead and take care of the living.

Despite the calamity and huge death toll , Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt.

The new city centre of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes. Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by having troops march around the models.

The buildings and large squares of the Pombaline Downtown still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions.

Carvalho e Melo also made an important contribution to the study of seismology by designing a detailed inquiry on the effects of the earthquake, the Parochial Memories of , that was sent to every parish in the country; this wealth of information allows modern scientists to reconstruct the event with some degree of scientific precision.

Following the earthquake, Joseph I gave his Prime Minister even more power, and Carvalho de Melo became a powerful, progressive dictator.

As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the upper nobility became frequent. In Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination.

The following year, the Jesuits were suppressed and expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown. Carvalho e Melo spared none involved, even women and children notably, 8-year-old Leonor de Almeida Portugal , imprisoned in a convent for nineteen years.

This was the final stroke that crushed all opposition by publicly demonstrating even the aristocracy was powerless before the King's loyal minister.

In , Spain invaded Portuguese territory as part of the Seven Years' War , but by the status quo between Spain and Portugal before the war had been restored.

Further titled "Marquis of Pombal" in , he effectively ruled Portugal until Joseph I's death in The Marquis of Pombal was banished to his estate at Pombal , where he died in However, historians also argue that Pombal's "enlightenment," while far-reaching, was primarily a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and especially an apparatus for crushing opposition, suppressing criticism, and furthering colonial economic exploitation as well as intensifying book censorship and consolidating personal control and profit.

With the occupation by Napoleon, Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline that lasted until the 20th century. This decline was hastened by the independence of Brazil , the country's largest colonial possession.

In the autumn of , Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal. From to , British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal in the Peninsular War , during which the royal family and the Portuguese nobility , including Maria I, relocated to the Portuguese territory of Brazil , at that time a colony of the Portuguese Empire , in South America.

This episode is known as the Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil. In , Brazil was declared a Kingdom and the Kingdom of Portugal was united with it, forming a pluricontinental state, the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

As a result of the change in its status and the arrival of the Portuguese royal family, Brazilian administrative, civic, economical , military, educational , and scientific apparatus were expanded and highly modernized.

However, the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until the Liberal Revolution of , which started in Porto , demanded his return to Lisbon in Thus he returned to Portugal but left his son Pedro in charge of Brazil.

When the Portuguese Government attempted the following year to return the Kingdom of Brazil to subordinate status, his son Pedro, with the overwhelming support of the Brazilian elites, declared Brazil's independence from Portugal.

Cisplatina today's sovereign state of Uruguay , in the south, was one of the last additions to the territory of Brazil under Portuguese rule.

Brazilian independence was recognized in , whereby Emperor Pedro I granted to his father the titular honour of Emperor of Brazil. John VI's death in caused serious questions in his succession.

Though Pedro was his heir, and reigned briefly as Pedro IV, his status as a Brazilian monarch was seen as an impediment to holding the Portuguese throne by both nations.

However, Pedro's brother, Infante Miguel , claimed the throne in protest. In order to defend his daughter's rights to the throne, Pedro launched the Liberal Wars to reinstall his daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy in Portugal.

The war ended in , with Miguel's defeat, the promulgation of a constitution, and the reinstatement of Queen Maria II.

Under his reign, roads, telegraphs, and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced. His popularity increased when, during the cholera outbreak of —, he visited hospitals handing out gifts and comforting the sick.

At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.

During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there.

With the Conference of Berlin of , Portuguese territories in Africa had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for Africa.

Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway tracks as the Benguela railway in Angola, and the Beira railway in Mozambique, started to be built to link coastal areas and selected inland regions.

Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include the British Ultimatum. This forced the Portuguese military to retreat from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia , which had been claimed by Portugal and included in its " Pink Map ", which clashed with British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo Railway.

His second and youngest son, Manuel II of Portugal , became the new king, but was eventually overthrown by the 5 October Portuguese republican revolution , which abolished the monarchy and installed a republican government in Portugal, causing him and his royal family to flee into exile in London , England.

The new republic had many problems. Portugal had 45 different governments in just 15 years. But the war hurt its weak economy.

Political instability and economic weaknesses were fertile ground for chaos and unrest during the Portuguese First Republic.

Portugal remained neutral in World War II. Gradually, new economic development projects and relocation of mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas provinces in Africa were initiated, with Angola and Mozambique , as the largest and richest overseas territories, being the main targets of those initiatives.

These actions were used to affirm Portugal's status as a transcontinental nation and not as a colonial empire.

After India attained independence in , pro-Indian residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli , with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organizations, separated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in Another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in December when Portugal refused to relinquish the territories of Goa , Daman and Diu in India.

As a result, the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese India against the Indian Armed Forces.

The operations resulted in the defeat and surrender of the limited Portuguese defensive garrison, which was forced to surrender to a much larger military force.

The outcome was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent. The Portuguese regime refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly until the military coup of Also in the early s, independence movements in the Portuguese overseas provinces of Angola , Mozambique and Guinea in Africa, resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War — Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community.

This period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces. By the summer of , the tension between these was so high, that the country was on the verge of civil war.

The main episode of this confrontation was the successful assault on the barracks of the left-wing dominated Military Police Regiment by the moderate forces of the Commando Regiment, resulting in three soldiers killed in action.

The Group of Nine emerged victorious, thus preventing the establishment of a communist state in Portugal and ending the period of political instability in the country.

The retreat from the overseas territories and the acceptance of its independence terms by Portuguese head representatives for overseas negotiations, which would create independent states in , prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.

Over one million Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese provinces as white settlers were usually not considered part of the new identities of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.

By , all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years. In this capacity Soares tried to resume the economic growth and development record that had been achieved before the Carnation Revolution, during the last decade of the previous regime.

He initiated the process of accession to the European Economic Community EEC by starting accession negotiations as early as Portugal bounced between socialism and adherence to the neoliberal model.

Land reform and nationalizations were enforced; the Portuguese Constitution approved in was rewritten in order to accommodate socialist and communist principles.

Until the constitutional revisions of and , the constitution was a document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers, and the desirability of a socialist economy.

Portugal's economic situation after its transition to democracy, obliged the government to pursue International Monetary Fund IMF -monitored stabilization programs in —78 and — In , the independence of East Timor Asia was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in because of the Carnation Revolution, but interrupted by an Indonesian armed invasion and occupation.

On 26 March , Portugal started to implement Schengen Area rules, eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states.

In , Jorge Sampaio became president. He won re-election in January Expo '98 took place in Portugal and in it was one of the founding countries of the euro and the eurozone.

It was initially rejected by voters in The territory of Portugal includes an area on the Iberian Peninsula referred to as the continent by most Portuguese and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores.

Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus , that flows from Spain and disgorges in the Tagus Estuary , in Lisbon, before escaping into the Atlantic.

The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, including the Algarve and the Alentejo regions, is characterized by rolling plains.

Portugal's highest peak is the similarly named Mount Pico on the island of Pico in the Azores. The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: the Azores straddling the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on a tectonic triple junction, and Madeira along a range formed by in-plate hotspot geology.

Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events. The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in —58 Capelinhos and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity.

This is the 3rd largest exclusive economic zone of the European Union and the 20th largest in the world. There are however, variations from the highlands to the lowlands: Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martinez presents several different bioclimatic zones for Portugal.

The record high of In these places snow can fall any time from October to May. In the South of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations.

Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult owing to rough topography.

Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer. Consequently, the islands of the Azores have been identified as having a Mediterranean Climate both Csa and Csb types , while some islands such as Flores or Corvo are classified as Oceanic Cfb and Humid subtropical Cfa , respectively, according to Köppen-Geiger classification.

Porto Santo island in Madeira has a semi-arid steppe climate BSh. Despite the fact that humans have occupied the territory of Portugal for thousands of years, something still remains of the original vegetation.

Due to the human population decrease and rural exodus, Pyrenean oak and other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas. Boar , Iberian red deer, roe deer, and the Iberian wild goat, are reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades.

Boars were found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas, like in Setubal. These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species , the English oak Quercus robur , the Pyrenean oak Quercus pyrenaica the chestnut Castanea sativa , the cork-oak Quercus suber , the holm oak Quercus ilex or the Portuguese oak Quercus faginea.

Due to their economic value, some species of the genus Eucalyptus were introduced and are now common, despite their environmental impact.

Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest, which nowadays, in Europe, is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula: in the Azores, and in particular on the island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemic Laurisilva the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve.

There are several species of diverse mammalian fauna, including the fox , badger , iberian lynx , iberian wolf , wild goat Capra pyrenaica , wild cat Felis silvestris , hare , weasel , polecat , chameleon , mongoose , civet , the occasional brown bear [98] and many others.

Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St. Vincent or the Monchique mountains, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring return migration.

Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between Northern Europe and Africa.

Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal either for nesting or during the course of migration , and annually there are new registries of nesting species.

The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species.

There are more than freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish in the Tagus International Natural Park to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes along the western portion of country, for example.

Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought. Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world.

Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as the sardine Sardina pilchardus , tuna and Atlantic mackerel. Bioluminescent species are also well represented including species in different colour spectrum and forms , like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe on some beaches.

There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle Lucanus cervus and the cicada.

The Macaronesian islands Azores and Madeira have many endemic species like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal.

In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than species of land gastropods. Portugal has been a semi-presidential representative democratic republic since the ratification of the Constitution of , with Lisbon , the nation's largest city, as its capital [ citation needed ].

The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as "organs of Sovereignty": the President of the Republic , the Government , the Assembly of the Republic and the Courts.

The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: the current President is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.

The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of deputies elected for a four-year term. The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches.

A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws. The Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic , elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage.

He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections ; dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic to call early elections ; vetoing legislation which may be overridden by the Assembly ; and declaring a state of war or siege.

The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State , which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.

The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration.

It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly.

The Council of Ministers — under the presidency of the Prime Minister or the President of Portugal at the latter's request and the Ministers may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers — acts as the cabinet.

Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate.

The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office. The Assembly of the Republic , in Lisbon, is the national parliament of Portugal.

It is the main legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to deputies.

Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation , deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.

The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system.

The main laws include the Constitution , as amended , the Portuguese Civil Code , as amended and the Penal Code of Portugal , as amended. Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code , as amended and the Civil Procedure Code , as amended.

The Public Ministry , headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors. Portuguese laws were applied in the former colonies and territories and continue to be major influences for those countries.

Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment in and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty.

Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years. Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in , the first country in the world to do so.

Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis , cocaine , heroin , and LSD.

While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines.

People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences.

Despite criticism from other European nations, who stated Portugal's drug consumption would tremendously increase, overall drug use has declined along with the number of HIV infection cases, which had dropped 50 per cent by Drug use among to year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.

LGBTI rights have increased substantially in the past years. On 27 August , Portugal added the anti-discrimination employment law on the basis of sexual orientation.

The law came into force on 5 June Portugal has 49 correctional facilities in total run by the Ministry of Justice. They include 17 central prisons, 4 special prisons, 27 regional prisons, and 1 'Cadeia de Apoio' Support Detention Centre.

Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services.

For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics NUTS , inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration and being phased-out by the national government.

In , Portugal co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.

It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal and the United Kingdom share the world's oldest active military accord through their Anglo-Portuguese Alliance Treaty of Windsor , which was signed in The armed forces have three branches: Navy , Army and Air Force.

They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.

As of [update] , the three branches numbered 39, active personnel including 7, women. Military conscription was abolished in The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years.

The Army 21, personnel comprises three brigades and other small units. The Navy 10, personnel, of which 1, are marines , the world's oldest surviving naval force, has five frigates, seven corvettes, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels.

In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard , a security force subject to military law and organization gendarmerie comprising 25, personnel.

This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.

The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a billion-euro bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in May After the bailout was announced, the Portuguese government headed by Pedro Passos Coelho managed to implement measures with the intention of improving the state's financial situation, including tax hikes, a freeze of civil service-related lower-wages and cuts of higher-wages by The Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal Telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions.

This allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works and inflated top management and head officer bonuses and wages.

Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants. Risky credit , public debt creation, and European structural and cohesion funds were mismanaged across almost four decades.

The case of BPN was particularly serious because of its size, market share, and the political implications — Portugal's then President, Cavaco Silva and some of his political allies, maintained personal and business relationships with the bank and its CEO, who was eventually charged and arrested for fraud and other crimes.

Since the Carnation Revolution of , which culminated in the end of one of Portugal's most notable phases of economic expansion that started in the s , [] a significant change has occurred in the nation's annual economic growth.

Since the s, Portugal's public consumption -based economic development model has been slowly changing to a system that is focused on exports, private investment and the development of the high-tech sector.

Consequently, business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear and cork Portugal is the world's leading cork producer , [] wood products and beverages.

In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund IMF.

In May , the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum. At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.

The Global Competitiveness Report for —, published by the World Economic Forum , placed Portugal on the 36th position on the economic index.

The Economist Intelligence Unit 's quality of life index placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for , ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but 9 places behind its sole neighbour, Spain.

The PSI is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index. The International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years.

Because of a surplus in , the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis.

The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt.

The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment. Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units.

The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: tomatoes , citrus , green vegetables , rice , wheat , barley , maize , olives , oilseeds , nuts , cherries , bilberry , table grapes , edible mushrooms , dairy products , poultry and beef.

Traditionally a sea power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.

Portuguese-processed fish products are exported through several companies, under a number of different brands and registered trademarks, such as Ramirez , the world's oldest active canned fish producer.

Portugal is a significant European minerals producer and is ranked among Europe's leading copper producers.

The nation is also a notable producer of tin , tungsten and uranium. However, the country lacks the potential to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and aluminium , a limitation that has hindered the development of Portugal's mining and metallurgy sectors.

Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves — mainly in the north — after the revolution and the consequent economic globalization , low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals.

The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most recognized Portuguese mines that are still in operation.

The largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production.

It has 5 more deposits in its possession. Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid.

Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral.

The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2, metres of total drilling. The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign.

Volkswagen Group's AutoEuropa motor vehicle assembly plant in Palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in Portugal.

Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such as aerospace , biotechnology and information technology , have been developed in several locations across the country.

Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon , Porto , Braga , Coimbra and Aveiro.

The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the financial crisis of — , and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal.

While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks , it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.

Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal. It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors.

Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,, foreign tourists each year. Lisbon attracts the sixteenth-most tourists among European cities [] with seven million tourists occupying the city's hotels in Also, between 5—6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley , the island of Porto Santo , and Alentejo.

The legend of the Rooster of Barcelos tells the story of a dead rooster's miraculous intervention in proving the innocence of a man who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death.

The Rooster of Barcelos is bought by thousands of tourists as a national souvenir. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects.

One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon , founded in Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.

Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several [] science parks across the country.

Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.

The European Innovation Scoreboard , placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output.

By the earlys, Portugal's fast economic growth with increasing consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation.

Again in the s, after joining the European Economic Community , the country built many new motorways. Opened in , the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5.

Although a few other tracts were created around and , it was only after the beginning of the s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented.

In , Brisa , the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the region's motorways. On many highways, a toll needs to be paid see Via Verde.

Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe at Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country.

The primary flag-carrier is TAP Air Portugal , although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country.

The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete , to replace Lisbon Portela Airport , though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures.

One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores.

This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores.

It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force. The base remains in use to the present day. A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal CP.

The railway network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of CP, both public companies.

In , the CP carried ,, passengers and 9,, tonnes 9,, long tons ; 10,, short tons of goods. In Porto , a tram network , of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remains, began construction on 12 September a first for the Iberian Peninsula.

All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services.

Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels.

New programmes combine wind and water: wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest.

Portugal's distribution system is also now a two-way street. Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels.

The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.

In and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,,, although it was an increase compared with A very small number of former Jews may have continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret over many generations, namely the Jews of Belmonte , a town in the interior; where people now observe the Jewish faith openly.

Another interesting demographic feature relates to the Scandinavian expansion towards the West and strong activity in Northern Portugal where some coastline communities kept Scandinavian ancestry in Aveiro , Porto and Braga regions.

The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45, years ago.

All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic.

Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations. With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers.

These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity.

Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean especially with Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans and Moors add some particular phenotypes in Southern Portugal and particularly Southern Spain Tartessos culture making Portugal and Northwestern Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character.

Despite the good economic development in the past three decades the Portuguese were the shortest in Europe since This emerging height gap took place in the s and has increased since.

One of the driving factors was the modest real wage development, given the late industrialization and economic growth in Portugal compared to the European core.

Another determinant was the delayed human capital formation. The total fertility rate TFR as of [update] was estimated at 1.

The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by a significant inequality which in placed the country in the lowest seventh of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.

Portugal's parliament in approved a budget plan for that includes tax breaks for returning emigrants in a bid to lure back those who left during the financial crisis of — The expansionary budget, backed by a left-wing majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further.

Returning emigrants will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years.

The "Return Programme" is to run for two years. Around , residents left Portugal between and after the Great Recession.

Although some , have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home — in a similar scheme to the Irish one. Furthermore, Emigrants returning in and will see their taxes halved as part of the stimulus to bring native Portuguese back and revitalize the population and promote continued economic growth [] — as Portugal struggles with a low birth rate and an ageing population.

According to projections by the national statistics office, Portugal's population will fall to 7. In , Portugal had 10,, inhabitants of whom about , were legal immigrants.

Portugal's colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the south-western corner of Europe, looking out into the Atlantic Ocean.

It was one of the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories among them Angola and Mozambique in , turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China at the end of Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons.

Portugal, long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry , [] has now become a country of net immigration, [] and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until , African Portuguese until , and Far East Asian Portuguese until overseas territories.

An estimated , Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in Since the s, along with a boom in construction , several new waves of Ukrainian , Brazilian , Lusophone Africans and other Africans have settled in the country.

Portugal's Romani population is estimated to be at about 40, In addition, a number of EU citizens , mostly from the United Kingdom, other northern European or Nordic countries, have become permanent residents in the country with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira.

According to the Census, Some 6. Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated.

In the 13th and 14th centuries , the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest , its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its first university.

The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization , with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents.

The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic —26 changed the role and importance of organized religion.

Portugal is a secular state : church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated in the Portuguese Constitution.

Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the Concordata later amended in between Portugal and the Holy See and the Religious Freedom Act.

Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated from Galician-Portuguese ; an extinct language that was spoken in what is now Galicia and Northern Portugal regions.

There are still many similarities between the Galician and Portuguese cultures. Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

The Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around years ago — particularly the Celts , [23] Conii , [] Lusitanians [22] and Turduli.

These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region People's Republic of China where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese , make up the Lusosphere , a term derived from the ancient Roman province of " Lusitania ", which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river.

Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal.

It is part of the Astur-Leonese group of languages. According to the International English Proficiency Index , Portugal has a high proficiency level in English , higher than in other countries like Italy, France or Spain.

The educational system is divided into preschool for those under age 6 , basic education 9 years, in three stages, compulsory , secondary education 3 years, compulsory since , and higher education subdivided in university and polytechnic education.

Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions.

The total adult literacy rate is Portuguese primary school enrolments are per cent. According to the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA , the average Portuguese year-old student, when rated in terms of reading literacy, mathematics and science knowledge, is placed significantly above the OECD 's average, at a similar level as those students from Norway, Denmark and Belgium, with points is the average.

In addition to being a destination for international students , Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students.

All higher education students, both domestic and international, totalled , in Portuguese universities have existed since The oldest Portuguese university [] was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra.

Presently, the largest university in Portugal is the University of Lisbon. The Bologna process has been adopted by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes in Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions.

Would they be extradited from the country and have their names covered in the credits? The odd thing about the law in Portugal is that the name Thomas is legal, but any aliases are banned, and Tom is an alias of Thomas.

But if you think banning aliases is bizarre, they have an official list of approved names that you must pick from.

This list of names that Portugal gives has some flexibility. For instance, if one parent is a duel national or a citizen of a foreign country, the law does not apply.

But if you decide to seek citizenship, prepare to change your name to an approved one. But in saying all that, there have been reports of people called Tom being given the odd glare for harboring an unapproved name.

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